ancient cultures

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ancient cultures

Distinctive features of ancient civilization in a nutshell. The main features of the ancient civilization and its difference from the civilizations of the ancient East

Antiquity played a prominent role in world history: for the first time in the field of economics, politics, social relations, state, law and culture, these relations developed and developed, formulating such concepts, concepts and ideas that formed the basis of the future European civilization and were destined for a long life in world history and culture.

Ancient Greece (III millennium BC – 30 BC) The oldest civilization in Europe arose on the islands of the Aegean Sea and the Balkan Peninsula and is known as the Mycenaean civilization of Crete (after the names of the centers – the islands of Crete and Mycenae, cities in southern Greece). The Mycenaean Cretan civilization was a typical ancient eastern civilization that existed in the second millennium BC.

Crete, like Phenicia, became famous as a sea power with a great fleet. The death of the Mycenaean Cretan civilization is associated with a number of natural disasters and the conquest of Greece and the islands of the Aegean Sea by northern tribes. This conquest led to the establishment of more backward tribal relations on the ruins of civilization.

In the eighth and sixth centuries. B.C. The ancient civilization began to form in Greece. The emergence of iron and related tools played a major role in its development.

In Greece, there is not enough land for agriculture, so livestock farming was widely developed here, and then handicrafts. The Greeks, familiar with maritime affairs, actively participated in trade, which gradually led to the development of the surrounding areas along the coast. Due to the catastrophic shortage of land resources, the Greeks were forced to establish colonies in Italy, Asia Minor and the Black Sea region.

The Greeks were aware of their loneliness – they called their homeland Hellas, and themselves – Helen. They had one set of Olympic gods and all-Greek athletic competitions. But all this did not prevent them from regularly fighting among themselves.

A key feature of Hellenic culture is the principle of competitiveness and the desire for superiority, which is uncharacteristic of the civilizations of the East. A situation arose in politics when its power depended on citizens, who, in turn, were subject to certain duties, but at the same time important rights.

With the development of production and exchange, new working hands appeared – slaves. Separation of handicrafts from agriculture. New population groups appear – shipowners, owners of handicraft workshops, which over time increasingly determine not only the economic, but also the political nature of city -states (politics), arose in the VIII-VI centuries. B.C. in Greece.

Politics included the city, as well as the surrounding countryside, and it was considered an independent state. Athena ‘s largest policy was in Attica, occupying an area of ​​2,500 square meters. how much. Other policies were much smaller.

Most of the politics were run by aristocrats, and the system of government was oligarchy (power of the oligarchs), but as trade expands, the middle class of merchants, artisans, and bankers begins to grow and prosper. In politics, a fierce struggle begins between the tribal nobles and the elders – the weak members of society. After being deprived of political rights, the demonstrations begin to look for an opportunity to participate in decision-making. Turmoil arises in the country, and to restore peace, the Greeks choose one ruler, giving him full power. Such a ruler was called a tyrant.

In 621 BC the Athenians, dissatisfied with the system of government and laws, appointed Draco, who had created the first written and extremely strict set of laws in the history of Greece, to the position of tyrant. Dracont made a public trial so that the people could see the results of justice.

He based his reforms on pre-existing oral laws, but wrote them down and tightened them, introducing the death penalty for many crimes, even if as simple as food theft. That is why even today we call harsh procedures and laws excessively ruthless. The famous ancient historian Plutarch wrote: “When Draco was asked why he imposed the death penalty for most crimes, he was said to have replied that small crimes, in his opinion, deserved such punishment, but for major crimes he found nothing else . . . ”

ancient cultures world
ancient cultures world

In the sixth century. B.C. The strict Code of Laws was revised by Solon, who proposed a number of measures to the Athenians: forbidding the sale of grain abroad, freeing all citizens from land debts, and stopping the practice of selling debtors into slavery.

The Athenians were sold abroad by the state. Solon also promoted private property, and the political rights of citizens began to depend not on generosity, but on the status of property. As a result of all these reforms, a slave-owning state was formed in Athens in the form of a democratic republic. Athenian democracy finally formed in the middle. 5th century BC, when Evialtes and Pericles improved the laws of Solon, which strengthened the position of demos. From now on, all citizens of politics had the right to elect them to the highest positions.

Another major policy was Sparta, which was located in the south of the Peloponnese peninsula in Laconia. This area was conquered by the Dorians at the end of the second millennium BC. Over time, the conquerors turned the conquered local population into slaves of the state.

The need to maintain obedience and constant fear of the helicopter, whose number far exceeded the number of the Spartans themselves, forced the latter to maintain discipline and unity in their midst with all their might.

Therefore, the growth of private property was artificially restricted, and the accumulation of excessive wealth in the same hands was not allowed. The Spartans were forbidden to trade, so that they had no gold and silver. For the same reason, the power of the hereditary aristocracy remained in Sparta for a long time. The Spartans paid great attention to maintaining the fighting capacity of their troops.

At the beginning of the fifth century BC. The Greek world faced a formidable Persian force. At this time, Greece was fragmented. A temporary alliance was formed to wage war with the Persians, but it was weak. At the head of the alliance was Sparta, the most militarily powerful country in Greece, whose soldiers were famous for their discipline and courage.

In 490 BC the Persian army disembarked from ships 40 km from Athens in the town of Marathon. The Greeks attacked the Persians and defeated them. But soon the new Persian king Xerxes assembled a large army and fleet and invaded Greece by land and sea.

In 480 BC the Persians crossed the Dardanelles on a pontoon bridge built of ships. In order to prevent the Persians from reaching central Greece, a detachment of Greeks under the command of the Spartan king Leonidas occupied the narrow pass of Thermopylae between the sea and the mountains, but was trapped and died. The Persians captured Attica, destroyed Athens, and the population abandoned it.

It was clear that the Greeks could not defeat the Persians on Earth. Then the Athenian strategist Themistocles assembled the entire Greek fleet off the island of Salamis and fought a huge enemy fleet. The Persians were defeated. A year later, the Hellenes were able to defeat the Persians on Earth as well.

After this comes the time of the power of Athena. It is called the “golden age”. During this period, thanks to trade, Athena became very wealthy. As a major center of culture, Athens attracted the best sculptors, potters, architects, playwrights, historians, and philosophers.

Finally a democratic system was formed in Athens, whose prominent representative was Pericles. A talented, educated, and brilliant orator, he knew how to convince listeners that he was right through the power of eloquence. He boosted the economy and the military and political power of Athens, turning the city into the center of education of Hellas, into the cultural capital of Greece.

Under Pericles, all areas of Athens’ economy were developed – construction, handicrafts, trade, shipbuilding and shipping, textile production. This made it possible to increase the employment of the population, to intensify their participation in work and earnings.

All this required significant expenditures, and Pericles put the state on a new financial foundation. The huge expenditures for strengthening and decorating Athena were covered by the cash reserves of temple treasures, which were formed from income from the Holy Land, shares of military spoils and donations and private donations. According to the Pericles fix, these treasures are no longer an emergency reserve. In addition, the funds of the military budget were used, which included the revenues of the allies.

However, Athens’ welfare collapsed with the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (431-404 BC), and the Spartans repeatedly conquered Attica, halving its population. The hostilities also affected the economy of Athens. At the request of the victorious Spartans, democracy in Athens was replaced by aristocracy.

In the middle of the fourth century. B.C. Macedonia rose to northern Greece. In 340, Macedonian King Philip II demanded that the Greeks recognize his power and, under his command, go to war with Persia. The Tayyibans and Athenians who refused to submit were defeated in a battle with the Macedonians in 338 BC.

In this battle, Alexander distinguished himself, the 18-year-old son of Philip, who two years later became king of Macedonia and commander of all Hellas. Alexander embarks on the path of military conquest, resulting in a vast empire and the title of Alexander the Great.

He was a military genius, with extraordinary energy and courage, his comrades-in-arms and warriors were infinitely loyal to him. In 323 BC Alexander died of a fever and his generals divided the empire among themselves, leading to wars that lasted from 323 to 281 BC.

Eventually Greece was conquered by Rome. In 30 BC. Roman forces occupied Egypt – the last of the Hellenistic states that arose earlier on the ruins of the empire of Alexander the Great. But the Roman state, which occupied Greece, was strongly influenced by its culture and borrowed a lot from the Greeks.

Later many achievements of Greek civilization laid the foundation of European civilization, and the famous Greek philosophy forever entered the treasury of world intellectual thought.

Ancient Rome (8th century BC – 5th century AD). At one time, the ancient Greeks were amazed by the rich vegetation of the Apennine Peninsula and the abundance of livestock, and they called the southern part of the peninsula the “country of calves” – Italy. In the future, this name spread to the entire peninsula.

According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 BC. Brothers Romulus and Remus. The oldest period in its history is called the monarchy. At this time, the basic social organization of ancient Rome was already taking shape. The inhabitants lived in clans ruled by elders.

Only those who belonged to the ancient families were considered full members of the society. She was a special part of society – the nobility. All the rest – newcomers, freed slaves or their descendants, immigrants from other cities were called commoners .

In 509 BC the Romans expelled the last king, Tarquinius the Proud, and decided that from now on the administration would no longer be in the same hands, but would become a public matter. Thus arose the Republic (Latin: general affair), which lasted for five centuries. In place of the hereditary power of the king, two consuls elected for a year appeared.

Soon after the expulsion of the last king, a general uprising against the aristocrats broke out in Rome, the result of which was a reform of the state administration: in addition to the aristocratic consuls, it was decided to elect two commoners annually.

Tribunes, who had the right to “veto” the orders of the consuls and the Senate regarding the commoners. Later, as a result of the struggle between aristocrats and plebeians, laws appeared according to which plebeians received the right to hold consular and other positions and to acquire land in the communal sphere. It was forbidden to give Roman citizens debt bondage.

In the third century. B.C. Clashes between Rome and Carthage.By this time, the possessions of Rome approached Sicily, but here the interests of the Romans encountered opposition from Carthage, which was a powerful naval power in the Mediterranean. From 264 to 241 the First Punic War took place, ending with the defeat of the Punic (Carthaginian), who were forced to abandon Sicily and Sardinia and pay a large indemnity to Rome. But the Romans were unhappy with the outcome of the war, because their goal was the richest city of Carthage at that time.

During the Second Punic War (218-201), despite the initial successes of the famous Hannibal, Carthage was defeated and lost all its possessions and the role of a great power. The shortest was the Third Punic War (148-146), during which Carthage, after a long siege, was captured, plundered and burned and, by order of the Roman Senate, wiped off the face of the earth.

During the same years, the Romans defeated Macedonia, defeated the forces of the Syrian king, and later subjugated Greece and the western part of Asia Minor to their power. So by the end of the second century. B.C. Rome became the center of the Mediterranean.

But the Roman state was already in a state of decline, since with the development of large-scale land ownership on the basis of slave labor, the economy of small landowners was destroyed. All of them. 1st century BC.

The Republic of Rome is in crisis. He was shaken by uprisings in the conquered territories, violent wars in the East, and civil wars in Rome itself. In 82 BC the commander Sulla establishes sole authority. By this time, the army and military leaders began to play an increasingly important role in Rome’s social and political life. A successful and popular commander, whose success depended on the well-being of the legion, became a major political figure.

The foundations of the empire that replaced the republic were laid. Gaius Julius Caesar was elected in 59 BC as consul.

Realizing the need for serious reforms, Caesar began to pay the soldiers of his army twice as much as other military leaders; To the allies of Rome, he generously distributed the rights of Roman citizenship. Caesar, declared in 45 BC dictator for life, passed laws that changed the political system of the state.

The People’s Assembly lost its importance, the Senate increased to 900 people and was replenished with Caesar’s supporters. The Senate granted Caesar the title of Emperor, with the right to pass it on to his descendants. His opponents organized a conspiracy led by Mark Brutus and Gaius Cassius. In 44 BC Caesar was killed, but the restoration of the aristocratic republic that the conspirators had hoped did not happen.

In 43 BC. Octavian, Caesar’s nephew, as well as the two commanders Mark Antony and Lepidus, entered into an alliance and defeated the Republican supporters.

However, Antony and Octavian began to seek personal power in a new 31 civil war, which ended with the victory of Octavian, who received the title of Augustus (“holy”) from the Senate and proclaimed from 27 BC. empire. After myself Octavian Augustus left a huge Roman Empire whose possessions extended to Armenia, Mesopotamia, the desert and the shores of the Red Sea.

But soon an economic crisis began in the Roman Empire, the decline of agriculture, crafts, trade and a return to normal forms of the economy.

A new form of relations was born on Earth – a colony. Large landowners rented plots of land and livestock needed to make tools. Small tenants, who gradually became dependent on landlords due to debts, were called poles. They paid rent to the landlords and taxes to the state with the products. The columns gradually turned into serfs who had no right to leave their village, and urban artisans lost the right to change their profession and place of residence.

Exorbitant expenditures to support the army and the court of emperors, for spectacles, and grants to the free poor, forced the Roman rulers to raise taxes from the population of the provinces. In different parts of the empire, population uprisings and riots broke out of warriors dissatisfied with the difficult service.

In the last period of the Roman Empire, two parallel processes developed: the spread of Christianity and the regular conquest of barbarians.

Christianity originated in the Roman province of Judea in the first century BC. AD based on the religious and social doctrine of the spiritual salvation of people through belief in the redemptive power of the Savior, the Son of God. The idea of ​​Christianity is based on Christ’s redemptive message, his execution, his resurrection, the second coming of people, the last judgment, the punishment for sins, and the establishment of the eternal kingdom of heaven.

In the conditions of national oppression and ideological turmoil in the Roman Empire, this doctrine was accepted by large masses of the population, proclaiming the equality of all people before God, destroying social barriers in society. After a long and unsuccessful struggle with Christianity, the emperors allowed the confession of faith in Jesus Christ (Edict of Milan, Constantine, 313). Over time, the rulers themselves baptized (Constantine, 330) and declared Christianity the only state religion (Theodosius I, 381).

In 395, the Roman Empire was finally divided into Western and Eastern. In 476, the commander of the German Imperial Guard Odoacer removed the last Roman Emperor from the throne. Thus ended the history of the great Roman Empire. The history of “Barbarian Europe” began.

According to a famous expression, the Romans conquered the world three times: the first time with legions, the second time with Christianity, and the third time with the oath. In fact, Christianity captured nearly half of the world, and Roman law of the classical period was adopted by many of the feudal states of Western Europe, and is today the basis of many institutions of law.

Distinctive features of the culture of the ancient Greek civilization

In Greece, religious innovations did not play a significant role – mythological consciousness deteriorated, faith in the Olympian deities weakened, eastern cults were borrowed – Astarte, Cybele, but the ancient Greeks did not bother to create their own original religion.

This does not mean that they were not religious. Religion, asebaya, was considered a crime by the Greeks. In 432 BC. H. Rev. Dionev introduced a new bill, according to which those who do not believe in the existence of immortal gods and speak boldly about what happens in heaven are brought to justice. And so they were. Homer does not really have much respect for the Olympian deities, who do not appear in his poems in the best way, with their treachery, greed and malice, reminiscent of mortal people. His deities are by no means the height of perfection.

The law proposed by Dionyphus was directed directly against the “philosophers”, in particular against Anaxagoras, who was forced to flee from Athens. Later, Socrates will be accused of atheism and be executed. However, the adoption of such laws is evidence of the backwardness of religious culture, its official character.

Thus, at this stage, the development of ancient Greek culture took a different path than in the ancient civilizations of the “first wave”. There religious ideology absorbed all the energies of the nation. In Greece, the decadent myth fuels the secular word. The world religion, Christianity, comes late, when the culture of antiquity is passing its last days. Moreover, Christianity is not actually a Greek discovery. Antiquity borrows from the East.

Another, no less important, feature of the culture of antiquity, which ancient Greece proved, is the most radical nature of cultural transformation.

Philosophy, literature, theatre, lyric poetry, the Olympic Games appear for the first time, having no ancestors in previous spiritual forms. In the culture of the ancient civilizations of the East we will find mysteries – theatre-goers, sports fights, poetry, prose, philosophy. But they do not acquire such a developed institutional character there as in Greece, they still nourish new religious and philosophical systems, sometimes without occupying an independent position. In ancient Greece, philosophy, literature and theater quickly became independent types of culture, standing apart, turning into a kind of specialized and professional activities.

Another no less important feature of the culture of ancient Greece is the unusually high rate of cultural change: they covered about 300 years, from the 6th century BC. BC e. until the third century. BC e, when stagnation and subsequent decline are revealed.

The culture of ancient Greece is like a one-day butterfly. It comes on quickly, but quickly disappears. But then the culture neighboring ancient Rome, the civilizations of the East and Africa will nourish from its fruits, and through it the cultural influence of antiquity will also nourish the culture of Europe.

In contrast to the cultures of the civilizations of the ancient East, which were characterized by an “Asian mode of production” with a central state performing productive functions, polis (state – state) plays a large role in ancient Greece. On the eve of the eighth century BC e.

There is a disintegration in the tribal society. Settlements were characterized as a form of coexistence between relatives or members of the tribe. The stratification inherent in civilization gives rise to neighborhood ties and a different type of residence – the city.

Cities are formed in the form of synoykism – a connection, merging several settlements into one, for example, Athens arises on the basis of the unification of 12 villages, Sparta unites 5, Tegea and Mantinea, 9 settlements each. Thus, the formation of the polis system is a dynamic process that spanned several decades.

In such a short period of time, the old and ancestral ties could not completely disappear, they remained for a long time, and formed the spirit of the arc – the unknown beginning that underlies the urban collectivism, the polis community. Arch preservation is at the heart of many forms of urban life.

Its center was the agora – the arena where political meetings were held, and court sessions were held. Subsequently, the central square will turn into a commercial square, where financial and commercial transactions will take place. Overviews will be arranged in the agora – tragedies, questions about the most outstanding works of art, etc. will be outlined. Propaganda, openness, openness of politics, art, and autonomy of the city are evidence that in this initial period of the formation of civilization alienation has not yet captured the free inhabitants of the city, it retains in itself a consciousness of common interests, deeds, destiny. Its center was the agora – the arena where political meetings were held, and court sessions were held.

Subsequently, the central square will turn into a commercial square, where financial and commercial transactions will take place. Overviews will be arranged in the agora – tragedies, questions about the most outstanding works of art, etc. will be outlined. Propaganda, openness, openness of politics, art, and autonomy of the city are evidence that in this initial period of the formation of civilization alienation has not yet captured the free inhabitants of the city, it retains in itself a consciousness of common interests, deeds, destiny. Its center was the agora – the arena where political meetings were held, and court sessions were held.

Subsequently, the central square will turn into a commercial square, where financial and commercial transactions will take place. Overviews will be arranged in the agora – tragedies, questions about the most outstanding works of art, etc. will be outlined. Propaganda, openness, openness of politics, art, and autonomy of the city are evidence that in this initial period of the formation of civilization alienation has not yet captured the free inhabitants of the city, it retains in itself a consciousness of common interests, deeds, destiny.

Ancient Greece was never a single, centralized country with a single policy, which is religion and normative art. It consisted of many city-states, completely independent, often at war with each other, sometimes making political alliances with each other. It was not customary to have a single capital – the center of administrative and political life, the legislator in the field of culture. Each city independently solved obligatory and necessary issues, beautiful and complete, which corresponded to its ideas of human culture and society.

Therefore, ancient Greek culture was characterized by the desire for diversity, not unity. Unity arose as a result of the collision, competition and competition among the diverse products of culture. Therefore, culture was marked by afflictions – the spirit of competition, rivalry, penetration into all aspects of life.

Cities vied, and compiled lists of the “Seven Wise Men”, including a representative of their politics in them. The dispute was about the “Seven Wonders of the World”, covering all Greek settlements, and bypassing them. Each year, a judge decided which tragedies the playwright would play in the town square. The winner last year could be the loser this year.

No civilization discovered the Olympic Games – only the ancient Greeks discovered the Olympic Games. Once every four years, wars, strife and enmities ceased, and all cities were sent to the foot of Mount Olympus, closer to the Olympic gods, stronger, faster, smarter and smarter athletes. The winning Greek glory of life, an official meeting in his native city, waited to enter not from an ordinary gate, but through a hole in the wall, specially arranged for him by enthusiastic fans.

The city of Polis was world-renowned for being able to raise an Olympic winner. Disagreements sometimes took on a peculiar character: For a long time, seven cities argued among themselves about the location of Homer’s tomb. But this controversy is evidence of changing values, it may arise when the epic poetry of Homer became an all-encompassing Greek value, a single epic foundation that united all Greek cities, creating the spiritual unity of civilization, the unity of its culture.

The diversity of the culture of ancient Greece strengthened its unity, uniformity and similarity, which allows us to talk about cultural integration, despite the political and economic contradictions that tore the country apart. Archaic civilization, which divided society into contradictory classes, political interests, and competing politics, could not create a sufficiently strong unity by means of spiritual culture.

Let’s take a look at the list of the “seven wise men”. Usually called: Thales of Miletus, Solon of Athens, Piant of Priene, Petacus of Mytilene, Cleopulus of Lind, Periandra of Corinth, Cello of Sparta. As you can see, the list includes representatives of the cities of ancient Greece from the Peloponnese Peninsula to the coast of Asia Minor. By the time the list was compiled, it only reflected a shared past and a desired future, but not the present. This list is a cultural construct, but it’s not a harsh reality. Reality showed a sharp rivalry, hostility to the cities, which eventually sever cultural unity.

The development of the culture of ancient Greece was greatly influenced by the natural conditions in which the primitive Greek tribes that conquered this region found themselves. Here, in the Peloponnese and the coast of Asia Minor, there are no large areas suitable for growing grain and obtaining bread – the main food product.

Therefore, the Greeks had to establish colonies outside Hellas: in the Apennines, in Sicily, in the northern Black Sea region. To get bread and grain from the colonies, it was necessary to offer them something in return. What can resource-poor Greece offer? Its lands were suitable for growing olives and olives, as raw materials for the production of olive oil. Thus, Greece occupied an important place in world trade, supplying olive oil to international markets. Another product that made the culture flourish was grape wine.

No wonder Odysseus in Homer “teach” the giant Polyphemus how to make wine. Olive oil and wine required the development of ceramic production, the manufacture of amphorae, which contain liquids and bulk products (cereals, flour, salt).

The ceramics industry gave impetus to the development of handicraft production, intermediate world trade, the early formation of merchants, and financial capital. All this is connected with the sea – the main transport route of the ancient world.

No people at that time composed poems in which the sea was often mentioned. The Greeks were a marine people: the Argonauts made a voyage to Colchis on the eastern coast of the Black Sea; Ten years the surrounding sea carries Odysseus on himself, not allowing him to get home, and then he will have to wander until he meets a person who does not distinguish between an oar and a shovel. The entire Trojan cycle is also associated with naval expeditions. The rapid development of handicraft production, and thus the development of cities, shipping and intermediate trade – this is the source of the development of Greek culture. Friedrich Goebel noted in the tragedy “Gyges and his ring”

“You Greeks are an intelligent tribe: for your sakes

Others spin, you yourself weave,

A network went out, and there is not a single thread in it,

Crooked by you, but your network.”

The ancient Greeks realized very early on that it is unprofitable to trade in raw materials during commerce, and that the one who sells the final products, the final product, and not the intermediate product, gets the greatest profit. In the final product, ready for immediate consumption, that culture is concentrated. Culture is the result, the product of the concentrated efforts of society, the integrated work of people.

Sand prepared for construction, marble blocks, slaked lime – all these are the products of intermediate efforts, partial labor, which do not constitute safety in their crumbling. And only the temple (or palace or house) created from these materials, in a concentrated form, represents the culture of the community.

The culture of ancient Greece is the culture of civilization, that is, a society with a class composition of the population. “Bronze” civilizations, as a rule, create a special class of workers – “slaves”. Civilizations of “iron” – gave rise to a population dependent on feudalism. In ancient Greece – the “second” wave civilization, that is, iron – slave labor continues for a long period of its existence and only during the Hellenistic period loses its productive significance.

In this regard, the question arose about the existence of a “culture of slaves and slave owners.” In particular, some researchers have identified a “slave culture”, but note that there is little information about it. Others believe that since the ancient oriental sources are silent about the “slave culture”, it means that it did not exist, because “the position of the individual has no universal significance”, especially since slaves belonged to different ethnic communities to different local cultures.

In addition, culture is an objective relationship in words, things, etc. However, the slave was deprived of the opportunity to embody his position, and was forced to embody “the attitude of his master.” Slaves, mastering the language and customs of their masters, did not become creators of some special culture of slaves. Such a statement is not entirely correct from a historical point of view. We can remember a slave like Aesop with his cultural achievements – the “Aesopian language”, which has been preserved for centuries, nourishing the artistic culture of the peoples. Looking at the culture of ancient Rome, we note the contribution of Greek teachers and slaves by social status.

And then, studying world culture, we note that many cultural values ​​​​were created by slaves – from jazz melodies to dances, from songs to proverbs and sayings, etc. Slave-owning culture, silence, from which only a few traces and references have come down to us. Moreover, the culture of the ruling class was forced to take into account the existence of ” Thus, the dominant culture had to reckon with the existence of an anti-slave culture and take appropriate forms.

This is clearly manifested in religion, political culture and philosophy. Thus, the famous ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote: “Nature is arranged so that it varies The material organization of free people differs from the physical organization of slaves, since the latter have a strong body, suitable for performing the necessary physical labor, while free people have a free status and are unable to perform this kind of work, but are capable of political life. …after all, a slave by nature is one who can belong to another, and who participates in the mind to the extent that he can understand his commands, but does not possess the mind himself. The benefits that pets bring are not much different from those of slaves: they both, by their physical strength, help satisfy our urgent needs … It is clear, however, that some people by nature are free, others are slaves, and this is the last to be useful and just slaves at the same time.

Until slavery became widespread, this kind of thinking reflected the widespread prejudice that a slave became a slave “by nature.” But how can the fact that then all the inhabitants of the conquered cities become slaves be explained? Their natures have changed? No, they Their social status has changed, their position in society.Slave – is a social characteristic of a person, and any social phenomenon can manifest itself in its cultural and non-cultural form.

But how to explain the fact that then all the inhabitants of the conquered cities became slaves? Has their nature changed? No, their social status, their position in society has changed. Slave – is a social characteristic of a person, and any social phenomenon can manifest itself in its cultural and non-cultural form. But how to explain the fact that then all the inhabitants of the conquered cities became slaves? Has their nature changed? No, their social status, their position in society has changed. Slave – is a social characteristic of a person, and any social phenomenon can manifest itself in its cultural and non-cultural form.

The dialectics of its development plays an important role in the characterization of the culture of ancient Greece. We have identified three periods in its existence, reflecting its three different states. The third period began with the stage of ancient, archaic culture. Consider the features of this stage in the example of sculpture.

Typical sculptural figures of this period are the images that received the names “Ancient Apollos and Aphrodite”, also called “Ancient Koro” (Boys) and “Cross” (Girls). In fact, we do not know who depicted these statues, what deities are, and therefore the names “Apollo”, “Aphrodite” are given conditionally and traditionally. The figurines depict young people, a boy or a girl, personifying the gods. In fact, this is a religious sculpture, that is, it performs ideological functions, expresses social concerns, and not ideas about beauty in general. Sculptures of this period are distinguished by a weak half smile.

It should express and convey the joy and contentment experienced by the deity and the patron of this community and its admirers. If God is happy, then people are also happy. But there are also notes: society is happy – and the sculptor depicts contentment and joy on the face of God. Statues are created in the full growth of a human being. The weight is distributed evenly on both legs. One of them – slightly driven – the deity rushes, goes to meet his fans. It is quiet. All parts of the body are depicted symmetrically around the axis. The chest line is carefully processed, the back is cut transversely.

The sculpture was not intended for visitors to wander around and look at from all sides. No, the sculptor was only envisioning face-to-face communication.

Thus, we can identify a number of features of this stage of culture, which reflect the process of its formation: it is a harmoniously developed society, with rationally arranged institutions, an atmosphere of contentment and prosperity in relations, a comfortable life, supported by the belief in the inviolability of existing regimes and authorities and the continuation of the unity of civil society and political principles and ideology of culture.

This is the stage of formation of the culture of civilization, where social stratification does not lead to political, ideological or religious conflicts.

And the sculptor tries, with the means available to him, to express what the majority of this society is experiencing. The next stage was called “classic”. The words “classic” and “classic” were introduced in the second century. BC e. The Greek critic Aristarchus, who singled out a group of the most famous ancient Greek poets according to the degree of artistic merit of their works.

Since then, it has become customary to refer to the works that Aristarchus attributes to this group as “classic”, capable of serving as a model for other poets and writers. Later, the best works of artistic creativity of all times and peoples began to be called classics.

The reason for the emergence of this stage in the development of culture, which lies deeply at the basis of society, is hidden in the correspondence between the productive forces and the relations of production in a given society. This correspondence provides optimal conditions for the development of culture, contributes to its prosperity, harmony and perfection.

The Classical period gives us the emergence of a new style of “gravity” in sculpture. This style is most clearly evident in the statues of Harmodius and Aristogheton, Creations of Critias and Nezitum, 476 BC. H.

Classical sculpture reaches fullness in the friezes of the Parthenon, in the creations of the sculptor Phidias, who made the statue of Athena Parthenos, Olympian Zeus. The work of Myron of Eleuthera belongs to the same period. “Discobolus” brought him world fame. No less famous is Polykletus Argos.

In the classical period, as a rule, the concept of norm (measurement) arises. Thus, Poliklet created a law (a set of rules) that has dominated sculpture for more than 100 years: the length of the foot should be 1/6 of the length of the body, and the height of the head should be 1/8.

It is these proportions that are observed in “Dorifor”. For the classics, the desire to depict the parts is not, as in the ancient era, but the whole is characteristic. But at the same time, people are not depicted as concrete, as they are by nature, but as they should be.

Thus, the classics are guided by an ideal that is formed on the basis of philosophical, aesthetic and moral criteria. Thus, the unity of the rational and the sensory (irrational) is realized in perception and culture. Reasonable rational feelings are formed. There is also a unity of aesthetic idealism with political idealism. From here, the sculpture acquires nationality, political and ideological predestination.

During the period of decline, called Hellenism, the center of cultural innovation moved from Attica to Asia Minor, Egypt, to the islands. In the Hellenistic era was created: Colossus of Rhodes (the sculptor Haret of Minda). Tohe (Goddess of Happiness) in Antioch, sculptor Eutychides.

Nike of Samothrace (Pythocrates sculptor from Rhodes), Venus de Milo (unknown sculptor). Sculpture group “Laocoön” by Athenodoros, Polydoros, Ajsander. This creation is attributed to the end of the Hellenistic period. We have a copy discovered in Rome in 1506.

What changed in the perception of a person during the Hellenistic period, with the help of which techniques the sculptor attracts attention – we will answer these questions by examining the statue of Lacon. It depicts a priest from the city of Troy (Fig. 7.5) with his two sons. In Homer’s Iliad, Lacon was the man who exposed the trick of the Greeks and prevented the giant wooden horse from moving into the castle walls.

For this, the gods punished him by sending a sea monster. The set depicts three male figures intertwined with snake rings. Sculpture is distinguished not only by the drawing of parts, but also by the drawing of the whole – the composition. But the composition itself is asymmetric. Thus, the perception of “asymmetric” – the time of the decay period is realized. All figures of the moving statue, curved through the deathly embrace of the body, convey horror, despair and the inevitable feeling of death and suffering.

This impression is not transmitted rationally, but is perceived at the level of feelings in an irrational way. Thus, culture, which at first emphasized a rational, harmonious and calm conception of society, and then human behavior, at the end of its existence began to emphasize other qualities: irrationality, sensuality, anarchy, pessimism, despondency.

The point here is not that the sculptors did not see anything good in the future. Life itself witnessed the collapse of culture, its downfall, and society no longer had the strength to stop this decline. Greek antiquity could not find its correct answer to the challenge of time.

ancient greece culture

General and especially in the development of ancient Greek culture (in comparison with the culture of the peoples of the ancient East). The value of the heritage of the Cretan-Mycenaean period. Features of ancient Greek mythology and religion. Chthonic and heroic periods of evolution of myths.

Effects of libido and spirituality. Myths about the origin of the world and the change of generations of gods, about the origin of humanity, about the actions of heroes. The main deities of the Olympian deities. Temples, oracles, major religious festivals. Greek theater and its role in the public life of politics. Greek tragedians and comedians: Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes. Epic, educational and lyrical poetry.

Birth of a love story. The development of philosophical schools: Ionian natural philosophy, Pythagorean Orphic doctrine, Democritus, Plato, Aristotle, Stoicism and Cynicism. A social utopia. public speaking. The development of scientific knowledge. Great Greek Historians: Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon. Greek Architecture, Sculpture and Painting:

Archaic (from the ancient Latin antiguus) was called the Greco-Roman culture, as the oldest known to them, the Italian Renaissance humanists. This name has survived to this day as a familiar synonym for classical antiquity, in whose bosom European civilization arose. A kind of social upheaval occurred in the ancient culture.

In contrast to the cyclical cultures of the East, two of which died (Mesopotamia and Egypt), and two still exist (India and China), the culture of ancient Greece and Rome took a different path of development – a faster, more dynamic and more productive one.

In contrast to eastern cultures, which are characterized by a strict dependence on traditions, a cyclical historical course, a lack of development dynamics, the priority of the collective principle over personal and public ownership over private, the ancient world is built on completely different foundations.

If within the framework of the civilizations of the East one can observe the development in a whirl, when the cycles largely repeat each other, and the principle of the ruling family prevails in the time period, as in China and ancient Egypt, or the change of religious concepts, as in India, then in world history The ancient, cultural and historical eras, its peculiarity is connected with the fact that from period to period one can observe progress in the field of material production, civil law, scientific knowledge, creativity an increasingly flexible literary language.

The following are the periods in which it is customary to divide the history of the culture of the ancient world:

The oldest period (Culture of Crete – Mycenaean): 3rd millennium – 11th century. BC e.

Homer’s and Early Antiquity: Eleventh and Eighth Centuries. BC e.

Archaic period: VII-VI centuries. BC e.

Classical period: 5 c. Until the last third of the fourth c. BC e.

Hellenistic period: last third of 4-1 c. BC e.

Roman period: 1st c. BC e. – fifth c. n. H

The Mediterranean, seahorses, our sea, is the cradle of ancient civilization. Its first shoots arose on the island of Crete, where it crossed sea routes, connecting the Balkan Peninsula and the islands of the Aegean Sea with Asia Minor, Syria and North Africa.

Maritime trade was the economic basis of Cretan culture. From the hostile outside world, Crete was reliably shielded from the waves of the Mediterranean.

Only a sense of security can explain the fact that all the Cretan palaces, including the famous Labyrinth of Knossos, remained unfortified almost throughout its entire history. All Cretan art permeates with a sense of security, freedom and ease.

The canon of the image of the human body is borrowed from Egypt ”: shoulders, chest, eyes in the foreground, face and legs in profile, but the Cretans prefer the smoothness of the lines and the beauty of the silhouette, nevertheless, by the end of the fifteenth century BC there was a catastrophe of Crete, the causes of which are still unclear .

Cretan culture disappeared, but for three centuries the Mycenaean culture close to it was present on the Greek mainland.

The people of the Mycenaean period built fortresses that were surrounded by walls built of huge blocks of stone that the Greeks later called cyclopean. Small nations lived a completely separate and independent existence, full of wars that sometimes lasted for years, sometimes were pirate raids, and sometimes disputes were caused by rivalry in trade.

This is the Trojan War, which lasted ten years (according to archaeological data, it occurred approximately in the middle of the 13th century BC). This war tore apart the forces of the Mycenaean world: in the eleventh century.

BC e. The turbulent period of Greek history begins, the main factor of which is the conquest of the northern tribes – the Dorians, who stood at a more primitive level of development.

The period from the eleventh to the third centuries. BC e. It is customary to call it Homeric, because at that time the epic tales that were included in the Iliad and the Odyssey were composed.

The Iliad and the Odyssey depict a society much closer to barbarism, a more primitive culture than that recorded in the Mycenaean Cretan monuments. But the Homer era had its achievements: for example, the technology of smelting and processing iron was mastered.

In this regard, the economic opportunities of the individual family increased sharply: now each family could clear much larger areas of arable land and produce almost everything necessary for life.

The Homeric community (demos) led a rather isolated existence and, as a rule, occupied a very small territory.

The political and economic center of society was the polis: in the Greek language this word expresses at once two closely related concepts in the minds of every Greek – city and state.

Homeric polis was at the same time a city and a village. It was brought closer to the city, firstly, due to the crowding of buildings in a small area, and secondly, due to the presence of fortifications. But the bulk of its population are peasants.

Usually the sea or the nearest mountain range serves as the state border – so the whole of Greece appears in Homer’s poems as a state fragmented into many small autonomous regions, most of which have access to the sea. The fortified acropolis forms the basis around which the urban system is built.

Greece is a poor country: poor soil. The climate is dry in the summer and incredibly rainy in the winter. Thus, the peasant is forced to struggle alternately with drought and flood. In such conditions, olives and grapes grow better – the root system of the grain is not able to extract soil moisture from great depths.

Somewhere in the United States BC e. A very important and natural way out for the further development of Greek culture was found – trade and colonization.

The dark ages are coming to an end, and a period called ancient in history begins. The Greeks must learn from those peoples who outnumbered them during the Dark Ages. First, these are the Phoenicians: the cradle of their culture is located on the coast of Asia Minor (the territory of modern Lebanon), in the cities of Byblos, Sidon and Tyre, but starting from the XII-XI centuries.

BC e. They began to establish colonies in Sicily, North Africa and southern Spain (for example, the city of Cadiz, modern Cadiz). About 1000 BC. H.

They invented an alphabet for the needs of commerce, which, however, consisted of only consonants. About 800 BC e.

The Greeks adopted this letter, inserting additional letters in it to denote vowels. And this is accidental: After all, neither the merchant nor the navigator needed a formal apparatus to hide behind a wall of hieroglyphs, as in China, or a privileged class of scribes, as in Egypt and Mesopotamia. From the seventh century BC e. The Greeks began to compete with the Phoenicians in the field of colonial expansion.

The first settlers left for the coastal region of Asia Minor, where the cities of Ephesus, Miletus and Halicarnassus were founded.

Then the Greeks colonized the Black Sea coast (the cities of Sinop, Vasis, Fanagoria, Olbia, Chersonese), Sicily and southern Italy (the cities of Syracuse, Sybaris, Naples. Komi) and even the southern coast of France (the city of Massalia, modern Marseille). The Greeks never penetrated deep into the mainland, and colonization was concerned only with the coastal strip: they built their cities as trading posts. From the seventh century BC e.

The Greeks began to compete with the Phoenicians in the field of colonial expansion. The first settlers left for the coastal region of Asia Minor, where the cities of Ephesus, Miletus and Halicarnassus were founded. Then the Greeks colonized the Black Sea coast (the cities of Sinop, Vasis, Fanagoria, Olbia, Chersonese), Sicily and southern Italy

(the cities of Syracuse, Sybaris, Naples. Komi) and even the southern coast of France (the city of Massalia, modern Marseille). The Greeks never penetrated deep into the mainland, and colonization was concerned only with the coastal strip: they built their cities as trading posts. From the seventh century BC e.

The Greeks began to compete with the Phoenicians in the field of colonial expansion. The first settlers left for the coastal region of Asia Minor, where the cities of Ephesus, Miletus and Halicarnassus were founded.

Then the Greeks colonized the Black Sea coast (the cities of Sinop, Vasis, Fanagoria, Olbia, Chersonese), Sicily and southern Italy (the cities of Syracuse, Sybaris, Naples. Komi) and even the southern coast of France (the city of Massalia, modern Marseille).

The Greeks never penetrated deep into the mainland, and colonization was concerned only with the coastal strip: they built their cities as trading posts. Then the Greeks colonized the Black Sea coast (the cities of Sinop, Vasis, Fanagoria, Olbia, Chersonese), Sicily and southern Italy (the cities of Syracuse, Sybaris, Naples. Komi) and even the southern coast of France (the city of Massalia, modern Marseille).

The Greeks never penetrated deep into the mainland, and colonization was concerned only with the coastal strip: they built their cities as trading posts.

Then the Greeks colonized the Black Sea coast (the cities of Sinop, Vasis, Fanagoria, Olbia, Chersonese), Sicily and southern Italy (the cities of Syracuse, Sybaris, Naples. Komi) and even the southern coast of France (the city of Massalia, modern Marseille). The Greeks never penetrated deep into the mainland, and colonization was concerned only with the coastal strip: they built their cities as trading posts.

The Archaic period is, first of all, the time of formation of ancient politics. Many city-states competed with each other in various fields – political and economic, but sometimes the Greek (agon) rivalry took on a more noble form – competition, sports and literature.

In 776 BC. H. In Olympia, the first Olympic Games were held, from which, in fact, the Greek chronology began: the Greeks did not know linear time. They believed that there were four great ages: the golden age, the silver, the copper, and the iron, and then everything repeats itself, and in exactly the same way as the first time – the same events, births and deaths.

The Greeks also did not know the infinity of space: the very word kosmos originally meant oriental tent. The universe for the Greeks is a gigantic building, the world is the unity of all things, the abode of people and gods, arranged according to the laws of beauty and harmony.

Religion, common to all Greeks, also contributed to this situation.

The Greeks humanized their gods: they not only possess all human qualities, both good and bad, but live in a family (which has four generations) and work in purely human affairs. The gods themselves are made of flesh, they are mortals, but only immortal, freed from the heavy duties that oppress the human race.

Therefore, these and others were immortalized by the creation of a statue. And the Greek sculptor explained to the world the origins of its beauty and harmony. The motto of antiquity is: Man is the measure of everything. And this is not for the sake of a red word: for the Greeks, man was the embodiment of everything that exists, the prototype of everything created and created. In his book, the Greeks discovered rhythm, regularity of proportions, and balance.

The world of art was, as it were, a mezzanine of the human world, similar to it, but more perfect. As in Greek mythology, like them, but the most perfect Olympian gods live next to mortal mortals, so in fact, the citizens of Hellas were in constant contact with the community of gods and heroes, carved from marble and cast from bronze.

They did not prostrate before them, but admired their extraordinary joy, liveliness and beauty. This is the fullness of bodily existence, the cult of the complete human body inherent in ancient civilization.

Another feature that distinguished the Greeks from the foreigners, the barbarians, was that the citizens of politics valued their freedom.

The form of the state among the Greeks is very peculiar, even unique in history, although the organization of Greek city-states served as a model for Western democracy: electoral office, universal suffrage, trial by jury, accountability of officials to the National Assembly, the principle of minority subordination to the majority .

The old democracy was limited – slaves, meteorites (indigenous peoples of other policies) and women were excluded from the number of citizens with full rights. As for slaves, it must be said that forced labor was not the basis of ancient production: the welfare of society was based mainly on the activity of the middle class, whose interests played a major role in the economy and politics, as well as in other branches of culture.

A person engaged in a variety of practical activities – not repeated from year to year, such as an agricultural cycle, but changing, advancing like a craft, or, depending on many circumstances, such as navigation, felt the need to explain the world based on its characteristics, objectively established laws . There is science in the modern sense of the word.

The era of highest completeness, the classical era, as evidenced by the timeline, was short-lived – less than a century.

The leading role in this period belongs to Athens, especially the Athenian fleet, so the Delian maritime union of city-states, created for protection against Persia, quickly turned into an Athenian naval power. The treasury of the Union, originally kept on the island of Delos, was transferred to Athens, and the money of the allies began to be spent uncontrollably on decorating this city, and the Persians destroyed and burned it.

This age is often called the age of Pericles (for 32 years he was elected strategist and already stood at the head of Athenian politics).

The art of Athena in the age of Pericles is beauty and utility, the highest expression of harmony and the most practical account. Pericles’ main building was the Athenian Acropolis. Already in antiquity, two styles appeared, or, as they say, clear orders in Greek architecture:

Another Greek gift to the world is theatre, which also flourished in the Yu century. BC e. The appearance of the Greek theater is associated with the cult of Dionysus and the feast in his honor – Dionysius. The scene was due to choral costumes, dressed in goatskins, called a tragedy, the song of the goats.

The work dedicated to Dionysus was interspersed with games of clowns dressed as bears – hence the comedy, The Song of Bears.

The event that gave the tragedy of Greece seriousness was the Greco-Persian Wars of Independence. The father of the tragedy was Aeschylus (about 525-456 BC), who fought at Marathon and Salamis. It constructs tragedy like battle, introduces drama, that is, action.

This is the hero’s encounter with destiny, moira in Greek. Unlike other deities that exist physically in the world, Moira has never been given a human appearance: this is something like a law for the entire universe, which is precisely the stability of Moira.

Moira is above both humans and gods, she makes something out of the world that truly embodies order. The task of the tragic poet is to provide an interpretation of ancient myths and adapt them to a human scale, to match the harmony of the universe.

So, for example, Sophocles (495-406 BC) discovered in his trilogy the Oedipus myth, the worst of all, as it insulted both man’s sense of justice and his faith. Sophocles gives a deep philosophical interpretation: the scientist, whose harmony is disturbed by the killing of innocents and incest, immediately, mechanically, restores its balance, crushing Oedipus.

But as a catastrophe occurs, Oedipus learns that the current universe has demonstrated its existence. He loves this pure source of being, he himself rushes towards his destiny in a rush similar to the pulse of love, Umar Fati, as the ancients said … And Euripides (480-406 BC) can be considered the founder of psychodrama: he tried to find in the nature of a person the cause of his death .

So, for example, Sophocles (495-406 BC) discovered in his trilogy the Oedipus myth, the worst of all, as it insulted both man’s sense of justice and his faith.

Sophocles gives a deep philosophical interpretation: the scientist, whose harmony is disturbed by the killing of innocents and incest, immediately, mechanically, restores its balance, crushing Oedipus. But as a catastrophe occurs, Oedipus learns that the current universe has demonstrated its existence.

He loves this pure source of being, he himself rushes towards his destiny in a rush similar to the pulse of love, Umar Fati, as the ancients said … And Euripides (480-406 BC) can be considered the founder of psychodrama: he tried to find in the nature of a person the cause of his death . So, for example, Sophocles (495-406 BC) discovered in his trilogy the Oedipus myth, the worst of all, as it insulted both man’s sense of justice and his faith.

Sophocles gives a deep philosophical interpretation: the scientist, whose harmony is disturbed by the killing of innocents and incest, immediately, mechanically, restores its balance, crushing Oedipus. But as a catastrophe occurs, Oedipus learns that the current universe has demonstrated its existence.

He loves this pure source of being, he himself rushes towards his destiny in a rush similar to the pulse of love, Umar Fati, as the ancients said … Euripides (480-406 BC) can be considered the founder of psychodrama: he tried to find in the nature of a person the cause of his death .

The scientist, whose harmony is disturbed by the killing of innocents and incest, immediately, mechanically, regains his balance, crushing Oedipus.

But as a catastrophe occurs, Oedipus learns that the current universe has demonstrated its existence.

He loves this pure source of being, he himself rushes towards his destiny in a rush similar to the pulse of love, Umar Fati, as the ancients said … And Euripides (480-406 BC) can be considered the founder of psychodrama: he tried to find in the nature of a person the cause of his death .

The scientist, whose harmony is disturbed by the killing of innocents and incest, immediately, mechanically, regains his balance, crushing Oedipus. But as a catastrophe occurs, Oedipus learns that the current universe has demonstrated its existence.

He loves this pure source of being, he himself rushes towards his destiny in a rush similar to the pulse of love, Umar Fati, as the ancients said … And Euripides (480-406 BC) can be considered the founder of psychodrama: he tried to find in the nature of a person the cause of his death .

In the first century BC e. The fine arts gravitate toward tangible experiences. The permanent character’s position changes. In the ancient era, the statue was completely standing.

A mature classic brings it to life with balanced, flowing movements while maintaining balance and stability. and the statues of Praxitel, for example, with lazy grace, leaning on pillars; Without supports, it should fall off.

Greek art, influencing the physical presence in the language of ordinary body movements, tells of something important: about what previously overshadowed the bright order of the Greek worldview, and what happened at the end of the first century. BC e.

The decline and death of democracy caused by the prolonged Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) between Athens and Sparta. Athens was defeated, but the ancient civilization did not die and did not pass into a periodic existence according to the eastern model – it was rebuilt, achieving a new synthesis.

At this time, a new power appears – Macedonia, located north of the Balkan Greece. At the crucial moment, it was the ruler at the head of Macedonia, who valued the opportunities that presented themselves and managed to take advantage of them – Philip of Macedonia. The Hellenistic stage in the development of ancient culture, marked by the penetration of Greek and oriental elements, is associated with the name of his son Alexander and his military campaigns to the East. After Alexander’s early death in 323 BC. H.

The world power he created disintegrated, but disintegrated into rather large parts, led by Diadochi, the leaders of Alexander’s companions.

The Diadochi became full-fledged kings and rulers who established their own dynasties (the Ptolemies in Egypt, the Seleucids in Asia Minor), but this does not mean at all that Greek culture deviated from Eastern culture: on the contrary, a round in the development of ancient culture was caused precisely by the needs The private sector, crafts and trade.

It was necessary to create a structure in which private property and private production with guaranteed rights to political independence would be guaranteed, but at the same time free access to the commodity market would be provided. This structure was the Hellenistic monarchy, based on a network of independent politics.

The city of Alexandria became the capital of Hellenistic culture: it was founded there, where scholars from all over the world were invited, that is, the first university and with it a library. As a result of the transfer of the center of scientific activity from Athens to Alexandria, the strict rationalist logical characteristic of the Greeks collided with experience.

Notable mathematicians (Euclid, Hipparchus, Archimedes), astronomers (Aristarchus of Samos, Copernicus in antiquity), physicians, geographers, engineers (Heron of Alexandria, inventor of the steam engine) lived and taught at Mouseion.

This structure was the Hellenistic monarchy, based on a network of independent politics. The city of Alexandria became the capital of Hellenistic culture: it was founded there, where scholars from all over the world were invited, that is, the first university and with it a library.

As a result of the transfer of the center of scientific activity from Athens to Alexandria, the strict rationalist logical characteristic of the Greeks collided with experience.

Notable mathematicians (Euclid, Hipparchus, Archimedes), astronomers (Aristarchus of Samos, Copernicus in antiquity), physicians, geographers, engineers (Heron of Alexandria, inventor of the steam engine) lived and taught at Mouseion. This structure was the Hellenistic monarchy, based on a network of independent politics.

The city of Alexandria became the capital of Hellenistic culture: it was founded there, where scholars from all over the world were invited, that is, the first university and with it a library. As a result of the transfer of the center of scientific activity from Athens to Alexandria, the strict rationalist logical characteristic of the Greeks collided with experience.

Notable mathematicians (Euclid, Hipparchus, Archimedes), astronomers (Aristarchus of Samos, Copernicus in antiquity), physicians, geographers, engineers (Heron of Alexandria, inventor of the steam engine) lived and taught at Mouseion.

As a result of the transfer of the center of scientific activity from Athens to Alexandria, the strict rationalist logical characteristic of the Greeks collided with experience.

Notable mathematicians (Euclid, Hipparchus, Archimedes), astronomers (Aristarchus of Samos, Copernicus in antiquity), physicians, geographers, engineers (Heron of Alexandria, inventor of the steam engine) lived and taught at Mouseion.

As a result of the transfer of the center of scientific activity from Athens to Alexandria, the strict rationalist logical characteristic of the Greeks collided with experience.

Notable mathematicians (Euclid, Hipparchus, Archimedes), astronomers (Aristarchus of Samos, Copernicus in antiquity), physicians, geographers, engineers (Heron of Alexandria, inventor of the steam engine) lived and taught at Mouseion.

But the Hellenistic world turned out to be short-lived: in the first century. BC e.

A new power, Rome, is coming to the fore in the Mediterranean. This power was not external to the ancient culture. Later Roman myths linked the founding of Rome with the Trojan War. Roman scholars, on the basis of myths, tried to determine the date of the founding of Rome. Varro in 1 c. BC e.

He suggested that April 21, 753 BC, be considered the founding day of the city.

H. (according to our calendar). This date became the beginning of the Roman era – time was counted from it in the city-state, and then in the vast empire: Roman society separated from the ancient cycle, and it is symptomatic that the very foundation of the city was put to the fore, at the beginning of time – neither the birth of a god nor the reign of a king.

Ancient authors identified Rome either by the Greek term polis or its Latin equivalent civitas: in fact, its structure was similar to that which we observed in Greece. But Roman society and the state were deeply militaristic.

Any citizen between the ages of 18 and 60 can be recruited into the legions. During periods of maximum military tension, Rome managed to send hundreds of thousands of soldiers, which none of its opponents could do. This was one of the reasons that followed in the third and second centuries. BC e. Great conquests.

In 264 BC. H. Italy was united under Roman rule, and here the interests of Rome collided with those of Carthage, the trading city founded by the Phoenicians on the North African coast.

A series of Punic Wars (pun – the Roman name for the Phoenicians) began, during which in 202 BC. H. Spain was conquered, and in 146 BC. H. and Carthage itself. At the same time, Rome was at war with Greece: the Greek colonies on the Italian coast often turned to the rulers of the countries of the Balkan Peninsula for help. In 146 BC. H. Greece was occupied by Roman forces.

In 121 BC. H. Gaul (the territory of modern France) was annexed; At 75-64 years old. BC e. – Asia Minor in 55-54. BC e. Britain in 30 BC. H. – Egypt. Thus, Rome destroyed the Hellenistic monarchies, expelled the barbarian  environment and turned into a huge state, the most powerful in the entire Mediterranean.

The police (Republican) structure was not suitable for such vast areas. After a series of civil wars, a new state structure is being developed – an empire. Gaius Julius Caesar (circa 100-44 BC) was the first lifelong emperor. But the polis system, as in the Hellenistic world, was not destroyed on the ground: the dictatorship of the emperor was built at the head of the polis institutions.

The essence of Roman politics was expressed in the Pax Romana formula. In its first meaning, the word pax expresses peace in exchange for war. From the beginning, the emperors emphasized that the goal of their policy was not the conquest of new territories, but the development of already occupied and romanized ones.

In the first century n. H. She began to build the permanent fortifications, the lime, which sealed the empire at its borders like the Great Wall of China. And the word Romana means, first of all, that the lands that make up the empire are Roman lands and therefore have a certain common character, entering into a uniform and strictly regulated system.

The Romans divided the entire empire into provinces, provided public money, built famous roads, and founded new cities. The absence of destructive wars over the life of many generations led to the gradual strengthening of legal norms: the principle of natural equality of people, and customary law, common to different tribes and peoples, acquired the greatest theoretical significance.

The state – this is the main idea that inspired the Romans. Perhaps the contrast between Greece and Rome served as the first impetus for the opposition to culture and civilization. The Greeks – the unity of the world, the harmony of the universe. Among the Romans, the empire with its laws and regulations occupies the place of the universe. With the Greeks, what makes a man free is a beautiful thing.

The Romans had something good for the empire. The Greeks had a physical cult, they loved sports competitions and even calculated time according to the Olympiad. The Romans’ favorite entertainment was the bloody gladiator battles.

Tragedians used Greek mythology to understand the most important problems of human existence. Roman emperors gave performances in the circus – a death row criminal depicting the death of legendary heroes. On the one hand, culture is spiritual, bright, but impractical, on the other hand, civilization, material, cruel, sometimes dark and bloody, but permanent.

Ostensibly, the Romans recognized the aesthetic ideal of the Greeks: their sculptors copied many Greek originals (thanks to these copies, we have an idea of ​​\u200b\u200bGreek masterpieces). But the purely Roman features of sculpture – tactileness and expressiveness, which are especially evident in the picture. The Roman image, as it were, is the history of Rome, it is narrated personally.

Architecture also glorified the power of the state: the Pantheon was built in Rome, the temple of all the gods, glorifying the dream of uniting the empire.

The temple was built in 120 AD. e. , 120 years after the birth of Christ, but the altar of this god is not in a proud temple. Christianity does not tolerate neighborhood with other religious denominations, rather its birth in the depths of the Roman Empire from the banners marks the end of the ancient civilization, and the beginning of a new Christian civilization, which will be discussed in the next chapter.

Questions and tasks

1. How does the ancient culture differ from the cultures of the ancient East?

2. What are the main periods in the development of ancient civilization?

3. Give a brief description of the Cretan and Homer periods in the development of ancient culture.

4. When and where did the alphabetic writing appear? Why is this cultural achievement so important to the global cultural process in general?

5. How did the ancient Greeks understand space and time? Expand the concepts of “space” and “golden age” from a cultural point of view.

6. What do you think that the expression “man is the measure of everything” means? Uncover the peculiarities of ancient humanity.

7. Tell us about the old politics. What do you see as the originality of the Greek city-state?

8. Why did science appear in ancient Greece in the modern sense of the word?

9. Tell us about the Greek theater, its origins and development.

10. What is the peculiarity of the Hellenistic period in the development of ancient culture?

11. Why was Rome able to occupy such a vast territory? What is the reason for the transition from republican rule to imperial? Explain the meaning of the Pax Romana formula.

literature

1. Bonnard A. Greek civilization. T 1, 2, 3. – AD, 1992

2. Goran in PI Ancient Greek myths about fate. – Novosibirsk, 1990

3. Dmitrieva N. a. A Brief History of the Arts. problem. 1. – AD, 1999

4. Zaitsev A. Cultural turmoil in ancient Greece Vlll-V centuries BC. H. – L., 1985.

5. Zelinsky DD The Tragic Legends of Hellas. – Minsk, 1992

6. History of the ancient world. The emergence of ancient societies. – M, 1989

7. History of the ancient world. Decline of ancient societies. – M, 1989

8. Losev AF Genesis. Noun. Void. – M, 1993

9. Losev AF A History of Ancient Aesthetics. Early classic. – M, 1963

10. Losev AF A History of Ancient Aesthetics. Sophists. Socrates. Plato. – M, 1969

11. Hellenism. Economy, Politics and Culture. – M, 1990

The problem of myth traveled like a red thread through all ancient philosophy, culture, and art. In the era of antiquity, the myth began to gradually lose its ambiguity, revealing its characteristics and patterns. In ancient civilization, rational understanding of myth-making began.

Ancient thought developed a number of deep and original concepts of myth-making, and accumulated considerable experience for its subsequent scientific and rational interpretations, even those that had already developed in line with modern European thinking. All this is no accident.

Ancient civilization is the greatest and most beautiful phenomenon in human history. They were created by the ancient Greeks and Romans, which have existed since the eighth century. B.C. Until the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century.

Dice. For more than 1,200 years, it has provided the world with outstanding examples of creativity in essentially all areas of the human spirit. In it for the first time in history was the ideal of rationality – the belief that the world consists of things and processes that interact and change according to natural laws that do not depend on a person’s will, consciousness and desires.

Chapter 1. The Ancient Justification of the Myth: The Beginning of the Road

In the set of material and spiritual requirements of ancient culture, the following components can be distinguished:

♦ development of productive forces and technology (iron development and production of iron tools);

♦ the development of economic relations, the transition from an early class society to a developed society owning slaves, with its characteristic abstract social relations (master-slave relations, a developed system of relations between goods and money with ideas about value, abstract labor);

territorial expansion, resulting in cultural contacts with a variety of countries and peoples;

♦ pluralism of politics (city-states), each with its own traditions; The pluralism of the polis did not destroy, but, on the contrary, strengthened the consciousness of the common Greek cultural unity;

the social organization of politics, the open and democratic character of many Greek politics;

♦ the relative political equality of free citizens, the existence of political rights and personal freedoms;

♦ a developed sense of civic responsibility (every Greek considers himself responsible for the fate of the entire polis state, since the fate of each of its citizens depends on the state of the polis);

the presence of the perfect writing for those times (phonetic writing, alphabet), that is, systems and means of identifying, storing and transmitting information;

♦ Distribution of general arguments (which require the ability to convincingly, logically and reasonably defend one’s point of view), developing techniques of logical proof;

♦ Institutionalization of the training and education system.

♦ individualization of the spiritual world of the individual, the formation of self-awareness, self-esteem and rational-critical thinking;

The next universal type of civilization that developed in antiquity was the Western type of civilization. It began to appear on the shores of the Mediterranean and reached its highest levels in ancient Greece and ancient Rome, societies generally called the ancient world of the period of the 9th and 8th centuries.

BC e. to the fourth and fifth centuries. n. H. Therefore, the western type of civilization can rightly be called the Mediterranean or the ancient type of civilization.

The ancient civilization has come a long way of development. In the south of the Balkan Peninsula, for various reasons, early class societies and states appeared at least three times: in the second half of the third millennium BC. H. (destroyed by the Achaeans); In the seventeenth and thirteenth centuries.

BC e. (destroyed by the Dorians); In the ninth and sixth centuries. BC e. The last attempt was successful – an ancient society arose.

Antique civilization, as well as Eastern civilization, is a basic civilization. It had grown straight from the primeval and could not benefit from the fruits of a previous civilization. Therefore, in ancient civilization, in comparison with the East, in the minds of people and in the life of society, the influence of primitivism is significant.

The dominant position is the religious and mythological worldview.

However, this worldview has important features. Old world view cosmology. The universe in Greek is not only the world.

The universe, but it also organizes, the whole world, opposes chaos with its proportion and beauty. This application is based on analogy and harmony. Thus, in ancient culture, on the basis of models of worldview, one of the important elements of Western culture is formed – rationality.

The place of harmony throughout the universe has also been associated with the activity of creating culture for the “Ancient Man”.

Harmony is manifested in the ratio and connection of things, and these connection ratios can be calculated and reproduced. Hence the canonical formula – a set of rules that determine harmony, mathematical calculations of the law, based on observations of the real human body.

The body is the prototype of the world. Cosmology (thoughts about the universe) of the ancient culture has a central human personality, meaning that man was considered the center of the universe and the ultimate goal of the entire universe.

The universe has always been associated with man, and natural things with human things. This approach determined the attitude of people to their earthly life. Desire for earthly joys, active position in relation to this world are the characteristic values ​​of ancient civilization.

Civilizations of the East arose on irrigated agriculture. The ancient society had a different agricultural basis. This is the so-called Mediterranean trinity – cultivation without artificial irrigation of cereals, grapes and olives.

In contrast to the eastern societies, the ancient societies developed very dynamically, in which conflict broke out from the very beginning between peasants and aristocrats, enslaved in common slavery.

Among other peoples, it ended with the victory of the nobility, and among the ancient Greeks, demos (people) not only defended freedom, but also achieved political equality.

The reasons for this lie in the rapid development of handicrafts and trade. The trade and artisan elite of the demos soon grew rich and became economically more powerful than the landed gentry.

The contrasts between the power of trade and the craft part of the trials and the fading power of the landowning nobility formed the spring impulse for the development of Greek society, which by the end of the sixth century. BC e. Resolved in favor of demos.

In the ancient civilization, private property relations came to the fore, and the production of private goods, oriented mainly towards the market, was dominant.

The first example of democracy appeared in history – democracy as the embodiment of freedom. Democracy in the Greco-Latin world was still direct. The equality of all citizens was conceived as a principle of equal opportunity. There was freedom of expression and the election of government bodies.

In the ancient world, the foundations of civil society were laid, which provided for the right of every citizen to participate in government, recognition of his personal dignity, rights and freedoms. The state did not interfere in the private lives of citizens, or this intervention was minimal. Commerce, crafts, agriculture, and the family operate independently of government, but within the law.

Roman law contained a system of rules governing private property relations. Citizens were bound by the law.

In antiquity, the question of the interaction between the individual and society was settled in favor of the former. Personality and its rights were recognized as primary, and collectivism, and society secondary.

However, democracy in the ancient world was of a limited nature: the compulsory presence of a privileged class, the exclusion of women from its labor, free foreigners, and slaves.

Slavery was also present in the Greco-Latin civilization.

When assessing its role in antiquity, it seems that the attitude of those researchers who see the secret of the unique achievements of antiquity is not in slavery (ineffective slave labor), but in freedom, is closer to the truth. The displacement of forced labor for free labor during the period of the Roman Empire was one of the reasons for the decline of this civilization (see: Semenikova L. Russia in the Global Community of Civilizations. – M., 1994. – p. 60).

Civilization of ancient Greece. The peculiarity of Greek civilization lies in the emergence of such a political structure as “polis” – a “city-state” covering the city itself and the lands adjacent to it. Politics were the first republics in the history of all mankind.

Many Greek cities were created along the shores of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, as well as on the islands – Cyprus and Sicily. In the eighth and seventh centuries.

BC e. A large stream of Greek settlers rushed to the coast of southern Italy, and the formation of large policies in this region was so important that it was called “Greater Greece”.

Citizens of politics had the right to own land, they were obligated to participate in public affairs in one form or another, and in case of war they consisted of a civilian militia.

In Hellenistic politics, in addition to the citizens of the city, free people usually live personally, but are deprived of civil rights; They were often immigrants from other Greek cities. At the bottom of the social ladder of the ancient world were slaves who were completely deprived of their rights.

Police society was dominated by the old form of land ownership, and was used by those who were members of civil society. Under the polis regime, hoarding was condemned. In most politics, the People’s Assembly was the supreme body of power. 

He had the right to make a final decision on the most important polis cases. The cumbersome bureaucratic apparatus, characteristic of Eastern societies and all totalitarian societies, was absent in politics. Polis was an almost complete coincidence of political structure, military organization, and civil society.

The Greek world was never a single political entity. It was made up of several completely independent states that could enter into alliances, usually voluntary, sometimes under duress, waging wars among themselves or making peace. The sizes of most policies were small: they usually had only one city, where several hundred citizens lived. Each city was the administrative, economic and cultural center of a small state, and its inhabitants were engaged not only in crafts, but also in agriculture.

In the sixth and fifth centuries. BC e. The polis developed into a special form of slave-owning state, more progressive than Eastern despotism.

The citizens of the classic city are equal in their political and legal rights. No one stood above the citizen in the polis, except for the collective polis (the idea of ​​people’s sovereignty). Every citizen has the right to express his opinion publicly on any subject. It has become the norm for the Greeks to make any political decisions publicly and jointly after thorough public discussion.

In politics, there is a separation between the highest legislative authority (the People’s Assembly) and the executive branch (elected judges with a fixed term). Thus, in Greece, the system known to us as ancient democracy is established.

Ancient Greek civilization is distinguished by the fact that it clearly expresses the idea of ​​​​the sovereignty of the people and the democratic form of government. Greece in the ancient period had a certain civilizational peculiarity compared to other ancient countries: classical slavery, a polis management system, a developed market with a monetary form of circulation. Although Greece at that time did not represent a single state, the constant trade between individual policies and economic and family ties between neighboring cities led to the Greeks being self-conscious – to be in one state.

The heyday of ancient Greek civilization was achieved during the period of Classical Greece (6th century – 338 BC). The police community organization effectively carried out economic, military and political functions, becoming a unique phenomenon unknown in the world of ancient civilization.

A feature of the civilization of classical Greece was the rapid emergence of material and spiritual culture. In the field of development of material culture, the emergence of new technologies and material values ​​​​was observed, handicrafts developed, seaports were built and new cities appeared, sea transport was built and all kinds of cultural monuments, etc., went on.

The product of the highest culture of antiquity is the Hellenistic civilization, whose beginning arose with the conquest of Alexander the Great in 334-328. BC e.

Persian power, covering Egypt and much of the Middle East up to the Indus River and Central Asia. The Hellenistic period lasted three centuries. In this vast space, new forms of political organization and social relations of peoples and their cultures developed – the Hellenistic civilization.

What are the features of the Hellenistic civilization? Distinctive features of Hellenistic civilization include: a specific form of socio-political organization – a Hellenistic monarchy with elements of eastern despotism and a polis system.

The growth of production and trade in products, the development of trade routes, the expansion of the circulation of money, including the appearance of gold coins; A consistent blend of local traditions with the culture brought by the conquerors and settlers by the Greeks and other peoples.

Hellenism has enriched human history and world civilization as a whole with new scientific discoveries. Euclid (3rd century BC) and Archimedes (287-312) made the greatest contribution to the development of mathematics and mechanics.

Versatile scientist, mechanic, and military engineer Archimedes of Syracuse laid the foundations of trigonometry. He discovered the principles of analysis of infinitesimal quantities, as well as the basic laws of hydrostatics and mechanics, which were widely used for practical purposes. For the irrigation system in Egypt, an “Archimedes screw” was used – a device for pumping water. It was a hollow tube located obliquely, inside which was a tightly fixed screw. A fan ran with the help of people who collected and raised water.

Overland travel created the need to accurately measure the length of the path being traveled. This problem was solved in the first century. BC e. Alexandrian mechanic Heron. He invented a device that he called the distance meter (track meter). In our time, such devices are called taximeters.

World art has been enriched by such masterpieces as the Altar of Zeus at Pergamon, the statues of Venus de Milo and Nike from Samothrace, and the sculptural group Lacon. The achievements of Greek, Mediterranean, Black Sea, Byzantine and other ancient cultures entered the golden fund of Hellenistic civilization.

The civilization of ancient Rome compared to Greece was a more complex phenomenon. According to ancient legend, the city of Rome was founded in 753 BC. H.

On the left bank of the Tiber, whose authenticity was confirmed by archaeological excavations in this century. At first, the population of Rome consisted of three hundred clans, the elders of which made up the Senate; At the head of society was the king (in Latin – reve).

The king was the supreme commander and priest. Later, the Latin communities living in Latium associated with Rome received the name plebeians (the people of the plebs), and the descendants of the ancient Roman clans, who then formed the aristocracy of the population, were called aristocrats.

In the sixth century. BC e. Rome became a rather important city and was dependent on the Etruscans who lived northwest of Rome.

At the end of the sixth century. BC e. With the liberation of the Etruscans, the Roman Republic was formed, which lasted about five centuries.

The Roman Republic was originally a small country, with an area of ​​less than 1,000 square metres. how much. The first centuries of the republic – the time of the stubborn struggle of the common people for their equal political rights with the nobility, for equal rights to public lands. As a result, the territory of the Roman state gradually expanded.

\At the beginning of the fourth century. BC e. He had already more than doubled the original size of the republic. At this time, Rome was captured by the Gauls, who settled somewhat earlier in the Po Valley. However, the Gallic conquest did not play a significant role in the further development of the Roman state. The second and first centuries. BC e. It was the time of the great conquests that gave Rome all the neighboring countries of the Mediterranean and Europe to the Rhine and the Danube, as well as Britain, Asia Minor, Syria and almost the entire coast of North Africa. The countries conquered by the Romans outside Italy were called provinces.

In the first centuries of the existence of Roman civilization, slavery in Rome was poorly developed. From the second century BC e. The number of slaves increased due to successful wars. The situation in the republic gradually deteriorated. In the first century BC e. The war of the lower Italians against Rome and the uprising of slaves led by Spartacus shook all of Italy. It all ended with the founding in Rome in 30 BC. H. The sole power of the Emperor, based on armed force.

The first centuries of the Roman Empire were a time of the strongest inequality of property, and the widespread spread of slavery. From the first century BC e. The opposite process was also observed – the release of slaves into the wild. In the future, slave labor in agriculture was gradually replaced by the work of colonies, which were personally free, but tied to peasant land. The formerly prosperous Italy began to wane, and the importance of the provinces began to increase. The disintegration of the enslavement system began.

At the end of the fourth century. n. H. The Roman Empire is divided roughly into two halves – into the eastern and western parts. The Eastern (Byzantine) Empire lasted until the 15th century when it was conquered by the Turks. The Western Empire during the Fifth Century. BC e. It was attacked by the Huns and Germans. In 410 AD e. Rome was taken by one of the Germanic tribes – the Ostrogoths. Subsequently, the Western Empire went into a miserable existence, and in 476 its last emperor was deposed from the throne.

What are the reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire? They were associated with the crisis of Roman society, which was caused by the difficulties of the reproduction of slaves, the problems of maintaining the manageability of a huge empire, the increasing role of the army, the militarization of political life, the shrinking of urbanization. Population and number of cities. The Senate, the city’s self-governing bodies turned into fiction. Under these conditions, the imperial government was forced to recognize the division of the empire in 395 into western and eastern (the center of the latter was Constantinople) and to abandon military campaigns in order to expand the territory of the state. Therefore, the military weakness of Rome was one of the reasons for its downfall.

The rapid fall of the Western Roman Empire was facilitated by the invasion of the barbarians, the powerful movement of Germanic tribes on its lands in the fourth and seventh centuries, culminating in the creation of the “barbarian kingdoms”.

Among the reasons for the fall of Rome, one of the leading experts in the history of Rome, the Englishman Edward Gibbon (eighteenth century), mentioned the negative consequences of the adoption of Christianity (which was officially adopted in the fourth century). He instilled in the masses a spirit of passivity, non-resistance and humility, forcing them to bow meekly under the yoke of force or even oppression. As a result, the proud spirit of piety was replaced by the warlike spirit of the Romans. Christianity only taught to “suffer and submit.”

With the fall of the Roman Empire, a new era began in the history of civilization – the Middle Ages.

Thus, in the conditions of antiquity, two main (universal) types of civilizations were identified: Western, including European and North American, and Eastern, assimilation of the civilization of the countries of Asia and Africa, including Arab, Turkish and Asian. Underage. The ancient states of the West and the East remained the strongest historical ties in international affairs: external economic and political relations, war and peace, the establishment of borders between states, the especially large-scale resettlement of people, sea navigation, compliance with environmental problems, etc. .

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